An inspection of inactivated H7/H5 avian influenza vaccines
Avian influenza (AI) viral strains are usually classified into two categories: low pathogenic strains (LPAI), which typically cause few or no clinical signs in poultry, and highly pathogenic strains (HPAI), which can cause severe clinical signs and potentially high mortality rates among poultry. Avian influenza viruses are divided into many subtypes, with the highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes mostly affecting birds and poultry. Strategies to control AI outbreaks on poultry farms consist primarily of culling infected chickens or immunizing healthy chickens with an AI vaccine. From 2005 to 2016, in line with the Taiwanese government's poultry influenza prevention policy, our branch implemented inspections of inactivated avian influenza H5 subtype and H7 subtype vaccine reserves with 23 H5 subtype batches and 18 H7 subtype batches inspected. Tests for characteristic, sterility, preservative content, safety test, titer count and for inactivation, all conformed to standard requirements. It was analysising inspection results and comparing with USDA-APHIS-VS-CVB among the international . If titer standard changed from 16x titer of 80％vaccined chicken serums to 32x titer of that, 21 days after immunization. About 22％（9/41）batchs needed to collect serum from immunized chickens 4 weeks later to achieve.
Development of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Oil Vaccine
To improve the efficiency of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) vaccine, we changed AHRI BEF vaccine adjuvant from aluminum phosphate to oil in 2020. There were some cattle farms reporting bothering problems after immunizing the new oil-adjuvant vaccine. We recommended that the vaccine should be fully warmed up before immunizing, injected in the triangular mass of muscle on the side of the neck in healthy animals. Besides, immunization with changing needles is important. A sudden drop in milk production after immunization will get back in a few days. Minimal efficient adjuvant test and multiple immunizations with single dose each test were conducted in laboratory animals (cattle and rabbits) in 2020. The results showed that vaccines with different percentages (40%, 33%, and 25%) of oil-adjuvant all stimulate antibody titers higher than those recommended for protection from BEF, and multiple immunizations proved that the commercial AHRI BEF oil-adjuvant vaccine was safe.