The verification of the pathogen inactivation efficacy of the Ultraviolet pass box
The ultraviolet (UV) pass box is the most commonly used equipment in the biosecurity protocols within inspection facility clean rooms. To investigate the effect of irradiation time and UV light distance provided by the UV pass box on the efficacy of pathogen inactivation, two high-risk pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and classical swine fever virus, were used as control targets. The control targets were placed in the UV pass box at distances 5 cm and 30 cm from the UV lamp and at various time intervals. The results showed that pathogen inactivation was more effective at shorter distances from the UV lamp and that as a result shorter irradiation times were needed for pathogen inactivation at closer distances. These results could provide as a reference for revising disinfection procedures for items entering and exiting the clean room facilities used for the testing of genetically modified veterinary products at AHRI.
Bat lyssavirus surveillance in Taiwan from 2018 to 2021
Since the identification of Taiwan bat lyssavirus I in in the bat Pipistrellus abramus in 2016, the lyssavirus surveillance in the Taiwanese bat population has been continuously conducted in Taiwan. To monitor and investigate the epidemiology of bat lyssaviruses in Taiwan, bat populations are routinely surveilled via the direct fluorescent antibody test as well as other molecular techniques. From 2018 to 2021, a total of 407 bat specimens representing 13 species were collected, from geographic regions distributed across 18 cities and counties in Taiwan. The predominant species collected was P. abramus which accounted for 62.7% (255/407) of the collected bats. From 2018 to 2021, lyssaviruses were detected in two P. abramus specimens and in one Nyctalus plancyi velutinus specimen. The lyssaviruses identified in P. abramus were similar to Taiwan bat lyssavirus I which was previously identified in 2016-2017. The nucleotide similarities between the lyssavirus identified in N. velutinus and other lyssaviruses was less than 80% in the concatenated coding regions, and the newly identified lyssavirus formed a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree. This lyssavirus was thus assumed as a new species of lyssavirus and designated as Taiwan bat lyssavirus II. The current results indicate that two species of lyssavirus exist among bat populations within Taiwan. Therefore, public health awareness and education programs should be undertaken to minimize the risks of bat-to-human infections of lyssaviruses in Taiwan.