The epitopes of porcine circovirus type 2 and their immunological study
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded circular DNA genome and the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease. PCV2 is highly resistant to environmental conditions and it impacts pork production. Therefore, there has been used of commercial PCV2 vaccines have to reduce PCV2 infectious pressure in swine herds. This study aimed to explore the epitopes of PCV2 and its relation to PCV2-infected herd immunity. To recognize the proteins of PCV2, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated in this work. This study also used these mAbs and other antibodies to detect the capsid protein and other viral proteins to determine conformational epitopes in PCV2 virus-infected cells and the virus-like particle. The relationship between the epitopes and porcine antibody responses in the PCV2-infected herd was also discovered in this experiment. This research demonstrated that each anti-viral protein IgG had a different curve of the profile in the same herd with or without vaccination.
Surveillance of high pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds
High pathogenicity avian influenza can cause severe damage to the poultry industry, as well as pose a threat to wildlife and the public. In recent years, 220.127.116.11 clade H5 subtype high pathogenicity avian influenza has been the dominant threat to poultry and wild bird all over the world. A major source introducing the emerging avian influenza viruses into Taiwan is through bird migration. Since 1998, we have conducted avian influenza virus surveillance on wild waterfowl of wetlands every autumn and winter. Before 2019, the viruses detected in wild bird feces were all of low pathogenicity. After 2017, we began to monitor dead birds and then successively detected seven strain emerging H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from those targets. Moreover, in 2020, for the first time, we detected one H5N8 subtype virus in wild bird feces, and by the winter of 2021, twelve H5N1 subtype viruses were detected from feces. In the autumn and winter of this year, three H5N1 subtype viruses have been detected in wild bird feces, and the viruses belonged into two genotypes. In the case of frequent invasion of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses every year, the biosecurity of the poultry industry is particularly important. In addition, there have been many cases of 18.104.22.168b infection in wild bird and mammals abroad and the disease increased the difficulty of biosafety control in zoos and wildlife rescue and conservation units. There is a need for relevant units to refer to the epidemiological investigations and response protocol of these cases.
Report on Attendance of the IABS Meeting in France- Vaccination Strategies to Prevent and Control HPAI
In recent years, the global avian influenza (AI) epidemic situation remains severe. In order to understand the international feasibility assessment of the application of AI vaccines, the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine and our institute jointly sent staff to France to participate in the "Vaccination Strategies to Prevent and Control HPAI" held by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization from October 19 to 28, 2022. In the meeting, various obstacles to the use of vaccines, including doubts about international trade, vaccine strategy planning, public health risks, and epidemic control and eradication, were proposed, and countermeasures and scientific discussions were proposed. At the same time, it was emphasized that vaccines should not be used as the "only" way to disease control. However, because the use of vaccines cannot completely eliminate the virus, resulting in continuous evolutionary variation and the need to cooperate with a more rigorous monitoring system, countries still have different opinions on the application of AI vaccines, and no consensus has been reached. Based on the above reasons, we hope to use this trip to strengthen international cooperation, and use the new knowledge gained as a reference for improving our country's epidemic prevention measures against AI.