Evaluation of revision of the inspection standard for the live Newcastle disease virus vaccine
According to the Animal Drugs Control Act, domestically manufactured or imported Newcastle disease live virus vaccines (NDV) must undergo batch testing in accordance with the Newcastle disease live virus vaccine inspection standards announced by Ministry of Agriculture. The inspection standard was announced in 1975 and has amended four times. The purpose of this amendment of the testing standards is to implant the principles of the 3Rs (Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement) in laboratory animals. It was to refer to inspection standards of the United States, Europe, Japan, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and the People's Republic of China to conduct the virus content test and potency test of 35 batches of live NDV vaccines and 30 batches of live NDV and infectious bronchitis virus （IBV） mixed vaccines. The virus content test was to calculate the 50％ embryo infective dose value (EID50) after the vaccine virus was diluted and injected into specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo eggs. The potency test was to calculate the survival rate of chickens after being challenged with the virulent NDV strain (Sato strain) 2 weeks after immunization. The test results showed that the virus titer of the vaccine reached more than 105 EID50 per dose, and the survival rate of chickens challenged with the virulent NDV coulded reach more than 80%. It was suggested that the virus content test could replace the potency test, which could reduces 12 chickens used for the potency test, and it could prevent the chickens from the stress caused by the virus challenge. The amendment of the safety test suggested that 10 doses of vaccines should be immunized, and the number of immunized chickens should be reduced from 15 to 10. The results of this amendment of the inspection standard were that the number of chickens tested for each batch of the live NDV vaccine could be reduced from 27 to 10, a reduction of about 63% of chickens, which was in line with the spirit of reduction and refinement in the scientific use of experimental animals.
Detection of Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 in Non-human Primates
Herpes B virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1, referred to as BV) was first discovered in the United States in 1932. It is a virus that infects a variety of non-human primates and may cause fatal infection to humans, by causing central nervous system diseases. The "herpes B virus infection" is a zoonotic infectious disease. In 2022, the Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture commissioned the Veterinary Research Institute to assist in the detection of serum antibodies against herpes B virus in macaques, and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the antibodies. To ensure the health of sheltered non-human primates and their caretakers, screening of selected zoonotic diseases is recommended before the non-human primates are planned to be long-term house in the animal shelters.
Attending Report on the 2023 Veterinary Diagnosis Laboratory Quality Assurance Symposium
The University of Delaware (UD)’s Avian Biosciences Center (ABC) is a member of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s National Animal Health Laboratory Network It is accredited by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation. To improve the quality management system of veterinary diagnosis laboratories worldwide, USDA’s Animal and Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) provided full financial support for the international participants during the symposium. The symposium is an intensive 5-day program from July 24 to 28, 2023, co-organized by UD ABC and APHIS. The program includes presentations on the basics of the University of Delaware Poultry Health System and the general laboratory quality management system, demonstrations and discussions. The opportunity to participate in this symposium could not only improve the national diagnosis laboratory quality assurance system in our institute but also assist the regional diagnostic laboratories to improve their testing quality. Furthermore, the symposium provided a good model to expand test capacity and strengthen early warning system of animal disease.