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Seminar 956

Date:2024-07-02 Update:2024-07-02

Surveillance of vectors and vector-borne pathogens in wildlife and cattle of northern Taiwan

Yu-Ju Lin

 

Abstract

In recent years, the proportion of emerging vector-borne diseases has been gradually increasing worldwide. However, there is a lack of surveillance data on animal vectors and vector-borne diseases in Taiwan. This project is divided into two parts: monitoring vectors on cattle farms in northern Taiwan and ticks carried by wild animals, as well as the pathogens carried by these vectors, to establish baseline data that can serve as an early warning system for disease outbreaks. Three cattle farms with different breeding patterns in northern Taiwan were selected as sampling targets for monitoring vectors and important pathogens they carry. Samples were collected once a month. The collected vectors were classified into mosquitoes, flies, and midges for pathogen monitoring. None of the samples tested positive for bovine ephemeral fever or lumpy skin disease. For the monitoring of ticks and tick-borne diseases in wild animals in Taiwan, tick samples were collected from 17 animal species and 3 environmental samples in 2023. After identification, the majority of the collected ticks belonged to the genus Haemaphysalis, accounting for 79% of the total. This was followed by the genus Amblyomma (8%), the genus Ixodes (6%), and the genus Dermacentor (5%). Notably, Haemaphysalis longicornis was found on sambar deer (Rusa unicolor swinhoii), and Argas spp. were found on cattle egrets (Bubulcus coromandus). Other studies have indicated that Haemaphysalis longicornis can transmit severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and Argas spp. can transmit African swine fever (ASF). Therefore, there are plans to systematically sample sambar deer and birds in the future. Additionally, systematic sampling of wild boars was conducted, with a total of 71 wild boars and 331 ticks collected. Pathogen monitoring for wild boar ticks revealed no detection of viral pathogens such as ASFV, SFTSV, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), or Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). However, pathogens such as Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia were detected.

 

Molecular epidemiological study of bovine tuberculosis in Taiwan cattle

Chen-Shen Huang

Abstract

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Although, cattle are considered to be the main hosts, most mammals can be infected by M. bovis. Depending on the route of infection, characteristic nodular lesions can be observed in lymph nodes of the head and chest, or in abdominal organs. Intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) is the standard testing method for bovine tuberculosis used in international trade, and is also the standard testing method in Taiwan. We analyzed bTB positive cases in Taiwan from 2020 to 2023, and discovered that since the second half of 2020, many cases have been found in slaughterhouses, and the number of farms with positive cases increased. The M. bovis isolates were genotyped by two genotyping methods commonly used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for the purpose of molecular epidemiological analysis: spoligotyping and MIRU/VNTR typing (four loci, ETR-A, ETR-B,  Qub11b and Qub26). A total of 26 genotypes were obtained in 2023, the most in the history.

Report on Attendance of the WOAH “5th Regional Workshop on Swine Disease Control” in China

Hui-Yu Chen

 

Abstract

The 5th WOAH Regional Workshop on Swine Disease Control was held by the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) Regional Representation for Asia and the Pacific in Beijing, China, from November 20 to November 22, 2023. Through this conference, the WOAH aimed to share the prevalence of swine diseases among member countries in the Asia-Pacific region, enhance the diagnostic and control capabilities of swine diseases, and improve the epidemic prevention network and cooperation mechanism among member countries. The participating countries included Taiwan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam, totaling 11 countries. The workshop was divided into four sessions, 1) covering members’ update on main swine disease, 2) transboundary animal diseases and swine diseases situation in China, 3) update on the development and management of vaccine against swine diseases, and 4) swine disease diagnosis and control. In addition to understanding the African swine fever situation in the Asia-Pacific region and the epidemic prevention experiences of other countries, this workshop also allowed for the sharing of Taiwan’s achievements in eradicating classical swine fever, thereby enhancing our country's international reputation.

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