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Seminar 829  

Seminar:  829

1

Speaker(s)

Nan-Ling Kuan

Topic

Antimicrobial Resistance in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Abstract

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), the causal organism of infection in chickens, is responsible for large economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. This would imply any localized or systemic infection caused entirely or partly by E. coli, including coligranuloma, air sac disease in chickens, turkeys, ducks and other avian species. Antimicrobial resistance strains have emerged as a problem in both veterinary medicine and public health. This study isolated 55 strains of APEC from colibacillosis cases in different avian species (chicken, duck and goose). All strains were tested for their susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents by agar diffusion method and the results were as follows: amoxicillin 89% (49/55), ampicillin 98% (54/55), cephalothin 69% (38/55), ceftiofur 24% (13/55), colistin 98% (54/55), florfenicol 80% (44/55), flumequine 76% (42/55), ofloxacin 38% (21/55), streptomycin 80% (44/55), neomycin 29% (16/55), kanamycin 55% (30/55), gentamicin 64% (35/55), tetracycline 100% (55/55), oxytetracycline 100% (55/55), doxycycline 73% (40/55), sulfa / trimethoprim 89% (49/55) and sulfonamides 89% (49/55). Ampicilin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMO) and lst-generation cephalosporin cephalothin (KF) were ineffective for 87% (48/55) of all, additionally, 20 strains of them were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporin ceftiofur (EFT). The extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY were detected by PCR. In the resistance patterns, 75% (15/20) of the type AMP-AMO-KF-EFT strains carried both blaTEM and blaCMY genes; 61% (17/28) of the type AMP-AMO-KF strains carried blaTEM gene only. The kind and quantity of bla genes might affect its resistance patterns in bacteria.

2

Speaker(s)

Yu-Hua Shih

Topic

Development of waterfowl parvovirus tissue culture bivalent live vaccine

Abstract

Waterfowl parvovirus infection caused either by goose parvovirus(GPV) or by muscovy duck parvovirus(MDPV) that infected gosling and duckling showing clinical fibrous necrotizing enteritis, stunting and short beak. The viruses can be propagated in geese and Muscovy duck embryonic eggs and their fibroblast cell cultures, but goose and Muscovy duck have their own breeding seasons, the SPF embryo eggs are unavailable off their breeding seasons. So, we have to try to develop the waterfowl parvovirus tissue culture bivalent live vaccine for use in the field to protect ducklings and goslings against the infections of GDV and MDPV. Safety tests, efficacy test, immunogenicity and virus re-virulent tests have been completed. It has confirmed the vaccine is safety. One-day-old Muscovy ducklings with no maternally antibodys, each was vaccinated with a dose of the trial vaccine by IM and their serum neutralization (SN) antibody titers both against GDV and MDPV were reached 1:158 on 7 DPI (days post inoculation). To modified field conditions, one-day-old Muscovy ducklings injected anti- waterfowl parvovirus bivalent yolk antibody analog maternally antibodies. When their SN antibody titers were reached 1:32 inject each one dose, their SN antibody titers both against GDV and MDPV were reached 1:80 on 7 DPI. The results indicate that the vaccine has a good safety and effectiveness. Compared to the vaccine proliferate of embryo, which is limited by season and it is difficult to obtain SPF eggs, tissue culture vaccine production can solve this problem.

3

Speaker(s)

Wei-Cheng Hsu

Topic

Case report: Rabies in Formosan ferret-badgers in Taiwan/

Report of USDA 2013 Diagnostic Laboratory Network Course

Abstract

Taiwan had been a rabies-free country since 1961 and only three imported human rabies cases happened in 2002, 2012, and 2013. However, three Formosan ferret-badgers found in Nantou County and Yunlin County were diagnosed as rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in July, 2013. After the first three cases, massive surveillance on the wild carnivores was carried out. Up to September 7, 528 ferret-badgers were submitted to AHRI and 118 cases were rabies positive. Seventeen ferret-badgers, frozen stored from 2010 to 2013 at the Endemic Species Research Institute, were investigated by detecting rabies virus in their brains. Of the thirteen ferret-badgers that their brain tissues can be sampled, rabies viral antigen and RNA were detected in the brains of five ferret-badgers. The findings suggest that ferret-badgers have been infected by rabies virus as early as 2010.

The 2013 Diagnostic Laboratory Network Course was held at the National Centers for Animal Health, August 3-16, 2013. The objective of the training course is for participants to learn through a combination of structured presentations and on-site visits to veterinary diagnostic and federal reference laboratories. Twenty-five trainees from 17 different countries in Asia, South America, and Africa attended this course. Through this training I reviewed international standard: ISO/ IEC 17025 and shared valuable Quality Management experience with international researchers. In the future, we hope to corporate with OIE reference lab and join international proficiency test, and thus to strengthen our diagnosis ability..