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Seminar 782  

Seminar:  782  
1
Speaker(s)
Chien-Chih Wu
Topic
Recommendation for Revision of Caprine and Ovine Tuberculosis Test in Taiwan
Abstract
The official method to detect caprine and ovine tuberculosis in Taiwan is based on the tuberculin test, which has been a standard method and used worldwide. However, the testing protocol was brief and difficult to perform. To facilitate the eradication program of caprine and ovine tuberculosis, it is necessary to revise the tuberculosis test protocol to be convenient, labor-saving, and in accordance with international trend. The revision draft of caprine and ovine tuberculosis test was achieved by adopting the official protocols in OIE manual and those used in developed countries, including USA, UK, Australia, Canada, and Japan. Not only the subcutaneous and cervical intradermal injection methods were removed, but the comparative tuberculin test was added. Further, the interpretation of the caudal fold test was revised from measuring skin thickness to palpating or observing change. In addition, the associated techniques and concentration of tuberculin were subsumed in the revision draft, referring to the present bovine tuberculosis test protocol. In the future, we will look for a consensus of opinion on the revision draft of caprine and ovine tuberculosis test among the industry, the academic and government, and plan to draw up a tuberculosis test protocol for deer in Taiwan.
2
Speaker(s)
Yen-Ping Chen
Topic
Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Riemerella anatipestifer
Abstract
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection is one of the most important diseases in waterfowls. Waterfowls up to 3-4 weeks old are the most susceptible. The morbidity is near 100%. It can occur as an acute or chronic septicemia characterized by fibrinous pericarditis, perihepatitis, airsacculitis, caseous salpingitis, and meningitis. The mortality can as high as 75%. The treatment is primarily depended on antibiotic supply. To date, four plasmids commonly found in RA have been sequenced and none encoded antibiotic resistance gene. In this study, a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol resistance gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, cat) in RA was identified and its function of chloramphenicol resistance was also proved by cloning the full catgene into an expressed vector and performing the chloramphenicol resistant test. The cat gene is composed of 630 nucleotides and encoded in 209 amino acids. According to the results of alignment and phylogenetic analysis, the CAT of RA belonged to type B CAT was strongly suggested.The prevalence of the cat gene in Taiwan was as high as 78% by using PCR to detect cat gene of 74 RA isolates during 2005 and 2009, even though chloramphenicol was banned from use in food-producing animals in Taiwan in 2003. This result of persistence of chloramphenicol resistance in RA isolates was similar with other reports. Persistence of chloramphenicol resistance maybe due to co-selection of cat gene with either other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes or virulence genes. This is the first report of a plasmid encoded drug resistance gene in RA.
3
Speaker(s)
Ming-Chung Deng
Topic
Manufacturing and quality evaluation for vaccine adjuvants
in Seppic S. A., France
Abstract
Adjuvants have been the detrimental part in the development and manufacture of animal vaccines. The efficacy and safety of vaccines are greatly dependent on the activity and quality of an adjuvant. Since no manufacturer specifically for the adjuvant production has ever been established in Taiwan so far, adjuvants used in animal vaccines are mostly imported. This leads to an increase in the manufacturing cost with reduction ofcompetitiveness for Taiwanese animal vaccines. In addition, the mixing process of antigen solution with oil adjuvant is also a crucial step for the efficacy of vaccines. For the improvement of the vaccine quality, therefore we are authorized to visit the adjuvant manufactory and Europe research center of SEPPIC in Castres on 28 Aug to 8 Sep 2009 for performing the mixing skills and operating the equipments in the laboratory under instructions of SEPPIC’s specialists. We studied the fundamental concept of emulsification, the needed equipment, specific characteristics of various adjuvants, and evaluation criteria for the efficacy and stability of mixtures after emulsification of antigen and adjuvants. The SEPPIC specialists explained these in details and also offered a basic training that made us actually performed these mixing skills in the laboratory. This visiting made us realize that a successful vaccine needs several key steps of emulsification and has to reach the evaluation criteria for the vaccine efficacy and stability. We sincerely hope that the knowledge and experience of the visiting can make efforts to the development and research of adjuvants for the quality enhancement of the veterinary vaccines in Taiwan.