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Seminar 839  
Date:2014-07-09
Update:2014-08-28

 

Seminar:  839  

1

Speaker(s)

Yu-Pin Liu

Topic

A MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN TAIWAN

Abstract

Avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 1 (Newcastle disease, ND) is the most recognized serotype in Taiwan. However, the information about the distribution of all APMVs 1-9 in domestic poultry, wild birds, imported birds and pet birds is limited. This study used molecular biology analytical techniques to determine the serotype and the distribution of APMVs in birds. Sixty-eight APMV isolates were characterized, including 26 APMV-1, 1 APMV-2, 19 APMV-4, 8 APMV-6, 13 APMV-7, and 1 APMV-9-like. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of fusion protein genes demonstrated that 26 APMV-1 strains belonged to the linage of genotype II of class I, the linage of genotype I, II, VI, VII of class II and one novel genotype, respectively. The present study suggests that besides ND, there are at least five more serotypes of APMVs circulating in poultry and wild birds in Taiwan and this result provides insight to the potential influence for avian species on epidemiology investigation.

2

Speaker(s)

Chien-Chih Wu

Topic

Serological survey of melioidosis in livestock in southern and eastern region of Taiwan

Abstract

Melioidosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is endemic in southeast Asia and northern Australia. The objective of this study was to  investigate the prevalence of melioidosis in livestock in high-risk areas and evaluate the effect of disease control on the melioidosis-confirmed farm. The serum samples of cattle, goats and pigs were collected from Tainan city, Kaohsiung city, Pingtung county and Taitung county. Antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening and positive samples were confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT). The seropositive sample was not detected neither in 315 cattle sera from 25 farms nor in 393 pig sera from 29 farms. Among 881 sera from 59 goat farms, there were only 4 seropositive sera from 3 goat farms in Tainan city, Kaohsiung city, and Taitung county, respectively. In addition, the seroprevalence in the melioidosis-confirmed farm decreased from 26.01%155/596in 2011 to 9.18 %(54/588in 2013 and seronegative samples were predominant in the young goats.

3

Speaker(s)

Yu-Ju Lin

Topic

Development of Avian Influenza H5 Subunit Vaccine by Silkworm Bioreactor

Abstract

Since the outbreak in 1997, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been found in 62 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, and over one billion birds has died or killed. As Taiwan is located on the flyway of migratory birds and close to the mainland China, these geographic characteristics lead to high risks for HPAIV infection. Therefore, for public health concern, it is important to develop an efficacious avian influenza (AI) vaccine for domestic poultry for emergency use. Using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus as vector, combining with silkworm larvae or pupae as bioreactor to obtain recombinant proteins, is known to be a low cost and efficient way to produce the vaccine on a large scale. We have successfully expressed the majority H5N1 H antigen, the hemagglutinin, to develop the subunit vaccine with this expression system. The results showed that the pupae-derivative rHA subunit vaccine can induce adequate hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody response in chicken. The HA antigen can be effectively produced by pupae with an average yield of 1mg per pupae in average. In addition, there is no side effect shown in chicken on the pilot vaccine test. Based on the above results, it suggests that the baculovirus-larvae recombinant protein system could be a reserved antigen production of AI vaccine in the future.

4

Speaker(s)

Shu-Chia Hu

Topic

The Training reports of “Bat Born Virus Surveillance Workshop”

Abstract

The training program of “Bat Born Virus Surveillance Workshop” was implemented by two stages, and the first stage was held at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School on May 19~30, 2014. The training program contained 3.5 days of lectures, 3 days of field work, and 3.5 days of laboratory work.

The contents of lectures include: the introduction of bat, the field methods of capture, the introduction of personal protective equipment and bat born virus, bat immunology, and sample collection …etc.

The contents of field works include: the performance of equipment setting, capture technique and recording of bat, sample collection of bats, and release of bat. We captured and handled 4 species of bats (Eonycteris spelaea, Rhinolophus lepidus, Penthetor lucasi and Cynopterus brachyotis) in Singapore in this training .

The contents of laboratory work include: the dissection of bat and specimen harvest, the investigation of ectoparasite and blood smear, nucleic acid extraction, pathogen detection via RT-PCR/PCR, and serology…etc.

The second stage of this training program will be held next year, and will focus on the course of P3 laboratory work and further bat training.